One of the most comprehensive ways of the waves simulation and prediction is using spectral wave theory. Because the models which implement the wave hydraulic simulation directly, like the Bosinesque wave model, have some computational limitations that limits their usage to only small areas. This issue makes the simulation of the wave formation and advection which take place in large scales, impossible by non-spectral models. But, regarding that in the spectral model, the wave is simulated indirectly and actually by simulation of the wave energy which represents the wave, many of the wave’s parameters, are easily simulated. Up to now, several models have been developed using this theory like WAM, SWAN, WAVEWATCH and MIKE21-SW model.
Controlling effect for in different methods of simulating wave transformation (the upper figure is related to structured mesh and the lower one is for un-stuctured mesh)